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Geunjoo Lee (Korea Institute of Public Administration) 1. Changes in Administrative Environment 1.1 Globalization: As Giddens (1999) put it, globalization has come from nowhere to be almost everywhere. Though the term is still hard to define, globalization can be simply characterized as accepting global standards and increase in interdependence among nations (Kim & Lee, 1999). Globalization implies disappearance of geographical, political, economical and cultural boundaries among different nations. Expansion of international exchange of capital, knowledge, skill, and idea penetrates the individual lives and global future. Globalization expands the scope of environment a nation faces in terms of depth and width. Modern governments face more turbulent environment than ever before. Since the integration of societies, an emerging system of governance without government, management, or control has been sparked (Kettl, 2000). Shared values, which guided the policy decision, have yet to emerge. National sovereignty and government capacity have shrunk to understand and cope with the new issues and conflicts underlie them. With extreme uncertainty and complexity, it is virtually impossible for governments to manage and control the society. And often times, the government itself lacked people skilled in dealing with these new issues. Instead, government should encourage the creativity, autonomy and flexibility on the part of the private sector. Government is no longer the leader in a nation but a facilitator of individual initiatives. Government needs to loose the levers of societal control to harness the potential in this new economy. In the process of internalizing global standards, Korean government actively adopted global standards as well made them. Government reform program includes international trends at various levels. Such concepts of reform as small government, market orientation and intensive use of information technology are core idea of reform programs implemented during last few years. Concrete policy designs such as outsourcing are widely applied. In addition, Korean government participated in international organizations such as WTO to mould and shape new international norms and standards. :a